Mujahideen or Afghan Northern Alliance

Afghanistan fell into Mujahideen after the fall of communist regimes and led by Burhanudin Rabani and Ahmad Shah Masoud.

Rabani was born in 1940 in Badakhshan Northern province of Afghanistan. He finished school in Badakhshan and then enrolled in a religious school in Kabul. Then he studied Islamic Law and theology and achieved his degree from Kabul University. In 1996 he went to Cairo Egypt and got his masters in Islamic Philosophy. Rabani worked as the leather of Jamiat-e-Islami party (Islamic society of Afghanistan) as well as a professor at Kabul University.
In 1992 after the collapse of Dr. Najibullah’s government, Mujahideen took the power and Burhanudin Rabani became the president of Afghanistan while Ahmad Shah Masoud who was born in September 1953 in Panjshir Valley became the defense minister of Afghanistan. After a few months of the governance the civil war began between the leaders of ethnic groups, such as Gulbudin Hekmatyar the Prime Minister, Abdul Ali Mazari the leader of Hazara ethnic group, Dostum, the leader of Uzbek group. In fact every group had established a private government one part or another part of the country. During the four years of Rabani regime, thousands of civilians have been killed and millions of people became refugees in neighbor countries and huge destruction remained in result. The fighting was continued until the Taliban regime upraised in 1996 and took the control of Kabul and all the militias escaped and the fighting stopped in Kabul. Rabani escaped to the north but still he claimed as a legal and internationally recognized president of Afghanistan.

Rabani returned back to Kabul in late 2001, however his defense minister Ahmad Shah Massoud known as “Lion of Panjsheer and a great fighter” was assassinated on 9/9, two days before the 9/11 attacks in the U.S. Afghanistan flag during Rabani government was changed to two different types. First the red color was replaced to white with the declaration of Shahadah meaning (There is no God but God (Allah) and Mohammad is his prophet) from 1992-1996. And the second flag was created from 1996-2001 as the Afghan Northern Alliance flag which had three color stripes, an emblem containing a mosque with two side swords and declaration of Islamic faith Shahadah on top of the emblem.

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