Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal

Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal were both members of Khalq and Parcham cmmunist factions and ruled the country for seven years.

Left to Right (1929-1979) Hafizullah Amin was born on August 1, 1929 in Pashtun family in Paghman district of Kabul. Amin studied at Kabul University then he left to the United States for graduate studies at Columbia University. When he returned to Afghanistan, he joined the People's Democratic Party of Afghanistan ‘PDPA’ and then he become the deputy prime minister of Nur Mohamad Taraki. However, Taraki and Amin worked together as a president and deputy prime minister for a few months but it didn’t work well. In September of 1979 Amin assassinated President Taraki and took control of the government and announced himself as the second communist President. Hoever, his presidency didn’t continue long either and on December of the same year (1979), a Russian KGB member assassinated him in his palace and Babrak Karmal became the President.

However, Hafizullah Amin and Babrak Karmal were both from two opposition factions, the Soviet Union have has installed Karmal in order to achieve its goals.

Right to left (1929-1996) Babrak Karmal was born on 6 January 1929 in a wealthy family in east part of Kabul. He completed his education at Kabul University and while he was at University, he gained reputation as an activist in the student union. Later he involved in political activities while he was a student, and as a result, he imprisoned for five years. After his release, he joined the PDPA communist party in 1965 and then he was appointed a secretary of the party. Karmal also served in quasi-democratic National Assembly of Afghanistan which was during the constitutional monarchy of King Zahir Shah from 1965-1973.

Babrak Karmal became the third communist President of Afghanistan after the assassination of Afizullah Amin in 1979 and continued untill 1986. In May 1986 Babrak was replaced by Dr. Najibullah and he left to Moscow where he died in 1996. Afghanistan flag during the second communist regime was changed back to horizontal three color stripes with a different emblem on the top right side.

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