(1947 – 1966) Dr. Mohammad Najibullah known as Dr Najibullah was born in August 1947 in a Pashtun family in Kabul, but his family was originally from Paktia province of Afghanistan.
Dr. Najib was enrolled at Habibia high school in Kabul and then attended Kabul University where he achieved his degree as a medicine doctor in 1975. Najib Joined the PDPA and then he became secretary general of the PDPA after the resignation of Babrak Karmal. In 1986 Dr. Najibullah was elected as a president of Afghanistan and a new constitution was adopted and later the name of the country was reverted to the Republic of Afghanistan.
Dr. Najib stabilized his political position enough to begin matching Moscow’s moves toward withdrawal which in result the Soviet invasion of Afghanistan was ended on July 20, 1987 with the withdrawal of Soviet troops. After the withdrawal, the Soviet support reached in a value of $3 billion in 1990 and Kabul had achieved a stalemate which exposed the Mujahideen’s weakness in political and military wise, and Najibullah's government survived for another two years.
In March of 1990, Dr Najibullah’s government successfully stood against a Khalqi coup which it was headed by the Defense Minister ‘Shahnawaz Tanai’. When the coup failed Mr. Tanai fled to Pakistan. Afterward the government of Najibullah got weaker and then the regime collapsed, as Kabul was short in fuel and food. Shortly on March 18 of 1992, president Najibullah announced his willingness to resign in order to find ways for a neutral interim government.
After his resignation, Mujahideen captured Kabul and he sought sanctuary in the UN compound in Kabul and Burhanudin Rabani refused to let him leave the country, however made no attempt to arrest him. In 1992 while he was not able to leave the country, a political asylum was granted to his family from India and his wife and three daughters lived in exile since then. After the Mujahideen’s government withdrawal in 1996, Masoud the defense minister, Rabani, and Dustom escaped to Panjshir and asked Dr. Najib to leave Kabul and go with them, but Dr Najibullah refused the proposal due to thinking that could be a trap for killing him.
In 1996 the capital Kabul was captured by Pakistani agents of Inter-Service of Intelligences ‘ISI’ and CIA known as Taliban. In the second day after the Taliban Rebels arrived, they took away Dr. Najibullah from UN compound tortured, castrated, then brutally murdered him along with his brother Ahmad Zia and hung their bodies in public traffic light for the public view.
The Afghanistan flag during Dr. Najib remained as the three horizontal stripe colors except the emblem was slightly changed.